Asian Works of Art, Lots 1-423 Wednesday 6th June 2018 at 11am
&
European Works of Art, Lots 424-749 Thursday 7th June 2018 at 11am
Lots: 251-300 of 749
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Lot 251
A SET OF NETSUKE JOURNALS 1973-2013, LARGELY BOUND
Under its 3 different titles, 12 vols. of the Journal of the International Netsuke Collectors' Society collected in 3 wood and leather bindings, vols. 1-25 of the subsequent titles bound 4 years together, including photographic reproduction of the scarce issue 7/2 (1987). Incomplete loose issues vols. 26 (2006) to 33 (2013), and with the loose index for vols. 13-20
(9 bound volumes, 33 loose journals)
Estimate:  £1200 - 1500 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 252
M.-T. COULLERY & M.S. NEWSTEAD
Baur Collection, Geneva, Netsuke
Estimate:  £200 - 300 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 253
BOOKS ON CONTEMPORARY NETSUKE
R. Bushell, The Arte of Netsuke Carving (Masatoshi); M. Kinsey, Contemporary Netsuke; Princess H. Takamado, Contemporary Netsuke (2003); H. Arakawa, Netsuke, Takumi and Share
(4)
Estimate:  £40 - 60 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 254
BOOKS ON INRO
Champoud Collection, Inro (publ. Kyoto Shoin); Werlich & Germann, Inro, Gürtelschmuck aus Japan (Trumpf Collection); Lawrence & Brozman, Japanese Inro; Barry Davies, Inro, One Hundred Selected Masterpieces; G. Cohen, In search of Netsuke & Inro
(5)
Estimate:  £250 - 300 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 255
V.-F. WEBER
Ko-ji Hô-ten, first edition in original state, with separate volume of corrections and appendices
(3)
Estimate:  £300 - 400 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 256
GERMAN BOOKS ON NETSUKE
P. Jirka-Schmitz,The World of Netsuke (Werdelmann collection); also her Netsuke Düsseldorf 1990 exhibition of a German collection); O.H. Noetzel, Yakimono Netsuke; T. Klefisch, Netsuke, Inro u.a. Sagemono (Cologne exhibition 1982-83)
(4)
Estimate:  £120 - 150 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 257
FRENCH BOOKS ON NETSUKE
A. Ducros, Netsuke & Sagemono 2, as well as his Paris Edo, catalogue for the 1994 Paris Convention; F. Storno, Le Netzké Errant
(3)

The first and last dedicated by the authors.
Estimate:  £80 - 100 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 258
AN EARLY PARCEL-GILT IRON DORJE, TIBET, CIRCA 15TH CENTURY OR EARLIER
the eight prongs at each end, gathered in bulbous form with bud finial, the segmented handle with twin registers of kirtimukha heads
24.5cm long

Provenance: Private collection, London; formerly in a Dutch collection.

For a closely related early iron dorje, see Bonhams, New York, 13th March 2017, lot 3054

Estimate:  £4000 - 6000 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 259
A BUDDHIST RITUAL DAGGER (PHURBU), TIBET, 19TH CENTURY
bronze, with three sided blade issuing from a makara, the handle in the form of a vajra, the with triple head of Mahakala and further half-vajra at the top
36cm long
Estimate:  £300 - 400 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 260
AN IRON RITUAL DAGGER (PHURBU), TIBET, 15TH/16TH CENTURY
with three sided blade issuing from a makara, the handle with twin knot motifs, the finial in the form of a head of Mahakala
26cm long
Estimate:  £400 - 600 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 261
A SILVER FIGURE OF BUDDHA, TIBET, CIRCA 18TH CENTURY
seated in padmasana on a double lotus throne, his hands in dhyana mudra, with tightly curled hair with domed usnisa and bud finial, his robes with gold inlay, his face cold gilded with polychrome detailing,
16.5cm high

Provenance: Private collection, London; formerly in a Dutch collection.

Estimate:  £6000 - 8000 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 262
A PAIR OF PARCEL GILT BRONZE THANG-KA POLE ENDS, TIBET, 19TH CENTURY
of domed form decorated with a dragon in relief, the sockets with stylised tree design, surmounted by a lotus border
11cm long; 11cm diam.
Estimate:  £800 - 1200 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 263
A CARVED WOOD PRINTING BLOCK, TIBET, EARLY 20TH CENTURY
depicting a dharmapala (defender of the law) riding on his lion, with fierce expression, billowing robes, holding a standard
35 x 22 x 1.8cm
Estimate:  £60 - 80 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 264
A PAINTING DEPICTING THE MULTI-LIMBED FORM OF AVALOKITESVARA, NEPAL, 19TH CENTURY
gouache with gold on paper, the Buddhist deity standing on a prostrate figure of Mahakala on an elaborate gilt throne in a landscape, a further prostrate figure above two tiers of deities within arched niches, framed
43.5 x 33.5cm

Estimate:  £250 - 350 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 265
A THANG-KA DEPICTING VAJRAPANI, TIBET, 18TH CENTURY
pigment on cloth, the fierce red deity depicted on a lotus base, stepping on prostrate corpses and scorpions, surrounded by a flaming aureole, four diminutive figures of dakinis in each corner, framed
63 x 46.5cm within mount
Estimate:  £2000 - 3000 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 266
A THANG-KA DEPICTING AN ARHAT, TIBET, 18TH CENTURY
pigment on cloth, the central figure seated in a landscape, surrounded by two figures of lamas above, Mahakala and Dhritarashtra below, further smaller lama figures near the central figure, mantras in Tibetan on the reverse, green silk surround
59 x 39cm excluding mount
Estimate:  £200 - 300 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 267
A THANGKA DEPICTING RATNASAMBHAVA, TIBET, 20TH CENTURY
pigment with gold on cloth, the Buddha seated on an elaborate throne supported by a pair of white lions with richly upholstered back in a landscape festooned with lotuses, a triratna emblem above, mantras in lantsa and Tibetan script on the reverse
66 x 47cm
Estimate:  £120 - 150 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 268
A COLLECTION OF TIBETAN MINIATURE PAINTINGS (TSAKLIS), MOSTLY 19TH CENTURY
comprising sixteen square paintings on cloth and four others on paper, depicting various tantric and Buddhist deities and emblems, most inscribed on the reverse in cursive Tibetan script
10.5 x 7.7cm
(20)

Provenance: Private Collection, London

Estimate:  £150 - 250 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 269
A SMALL BRONZE FIGURE OF LOKESVARA, KASHMIR, CIRCA 6TH/7TH CENTURY
standing with his raised right had in abhaya mudra, his left holding the stem of a lotus which flowers at his shoulder, wearing three leaf crown and flowing headdress, projection for halo attachment (?) at the back, mounted
11.5cm high

Provenance: Private collection, London. Acquired Adrian Maynard, London, mid-1980s.

Estimate:  £1800 - 2200 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 270
A BRASS FIGURE OF DURGA MAHISASURAMARDINI, WESTERN DECCAN, CIRCA 18TH CENTURY
on tiered base, the eight armed goddess depicted slaying the buffalo demon, grasping its head and wielding her trident in her primary hands, her other hands holding her various attributes
12.5cm high

For a related figure of Durga Mahisasuramardini from Maharashtra in the Museum of Folk, Tribal and Neglected Art, see Subashini Aryan, Unknown Masterpieces of Indian Folk and Tribal Art, Gurgaon 2005, p.28, no.24.

Estimate:  £60 - 80 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 271
A RARE PALLAVA BRONZE FIGURE OF SIVA, TAMIL NADU, SOUTH INDIA, 7TH/8TH CENTURY
standing on a domed base with projections for prabha (now missing), the four-armed deity holding various attributes, with earrings, pointed headdress and flaring hair forming a triangle
15.5cm high

Provenance: Private collection, London. Acquired in New York in the mid-1970s

The tall slender figure and shape of the crown suggest an early date for this image of Siva. The stylised triangular shape of the radiating crown from the god's head is particularly characteristic of his fierce form, Bhairava, although in this case the features are not distinct.
Estimate:  £1000 - 1500 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 272
FOUR SMALL BRONZE IMAGES, INDIA, 19TH CENTURY
depicting Rama, Manasa, Hanuman and Radha respectively
13cm high and smaller
Estimate:  £250 - 350 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 273
A BRONZE FIGURE OF DURGA SLAYING THE BUFFALO DEMON, WESTERN DECCAN, INDIA, CIRCA 18TH CENTURY
the eight armed goddess stepping on the demon and pulling his hair with her primary left hand, stabbing him with her trident in her right, her remaining hands holding various weapons and attributes, on raised square base
14cm high
Estimate:  £150 - 250 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 274
FOUR COPPER-GILT PLAQUES, PUNJAB, 19TH CENTURY
with convex repousse relief decoration, probably from a screen, comprising two larger and one smaller convex roundels depicting a Sikh ruler on a European chair with attendant, Krishna on a swing, and Hanuman carrying the magic herb, the fourth of quatrefoil form, depicting Krishna in a shrine flanked by female devotees
14cm diam. and smaller
Estimate:  £200 - 300 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 275
KHANDOBA AND HIS HORSE, WESTERN DECCAN, 18TH/19TH CENTURY
bronze, the two figures from different original images, the god with legs apart, with long hair and tall headdress, holding a sword (now missing) in his right hand, the horse standing on a raised rectangular base, wearing saddle and trappings
15cm high (Khandoba); 19cm high (horse)
Estimate:  £150 - 250 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 276
A LARGE VIJAYANAGARA BRONZE FIGURE OF VISHNU, SOUTH INDIA, CIRCA 16TH CENTURY
standing in tribhanga on oval base, the four-armed Hindu deity with his primary right hand in abhaya mudra, his left resting on his gada, his upper hands raised, holding cakra and sankha, wearing elaborate belt with kirtimukha buckle, his tall crown with bud finial, his hair cascading in ringlets on his shoulders, a wheel-like halo attached behind
44cm high

Provenance: Private collection, East Anglia. Acquired by the vendor as a gift from her husband in the 1960s.

The criteria for dating early South Indian bronze images are subtle and far from clear cut. In many senses, this superb bronze displays the characteristic features of the Chola period (9th-13th century), and there was no abrupt change of stylistic direction when the Vijayanagar dynasty became dominant in the region. Nevertheless there are several indications of a later date, such as the more expressive face, the stocky, muscular build and the very detailed treatment of the jewellery and ornaments and their incised outlining. The relaxed pose with legs flexed is more commonly associated with depictions of Siva, while Vishnu, the preserver, is generally depicted, when in his primary form, in static full frontal images which emphasise his regal aura.
Estimate:  £20000 - 30000 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 277
A BRONZE VIRABHADRA PLAQUE, DECCAN, SOUTHERN INDIA, CIRCA 18TH CENTURY
of waisted rectangular form, the four-armed manifestation of Siva, stepping to his left, wearing tall sandals, wielding sword, shield, bow and arrow within an architectural niche with kirtimukha above, flanked by diminutive figures of Daksha and Sati, large carrying handle at the back
27.5 x 18 x 7cm approximately

Daksha offended Siva by not inviting him to attend a sacrifice following an earlier occasion when Siva had slighted him. Sati who was Daksha s daughter as well as being Siva's wife was present and felt so insulted that she threw herself on the pyre. Then Siva appeared as Virabhadra and cut off Daksha's head to avenge his wife. Other gods pleaded for Daksha's life but although Siva decided to spare him his severed head could not be found so the head of a goat was substituted instead.

Estimate:  £500 - 700 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 278
A BRONZE FIGURE OF VISHNU ON GARUDA, TAMIL NADU, SOUTH INDIA, 19TH CENTURY
cast in two sections, the four-armed Hindu god standing on a lotus, his primary hands in varada mudra and resting on his gada (now missing), the platform carried by the crouching winged figure of his vehicle, Garuda, his hands outstretched
23cm high
Estimate:  £700 - 900 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 279
A BRONZE FIGURE OF DURGA SLAYING THE BUFFALO DEMON, SOUTH INDIA, 18TH/19TH CENTURY
on raised rectangular base, the eight-armed goddess pulling at the demon by the hair as it issues from the buffalo body, the decapitated head lying below, her right foot resting on her lion, her remaining hands holding various weapons and attributes
16cm high
Estimate:  £500 - 700 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 280
A SMALL PALA STYLE BRASS FIGURE OF PADMAPANI, EASTERN INDIA OR TIBET, 11TH/12TH CENTURY
standing in tribhanga on a lotus base, wearing three-leaf crown
6.5cm high

Provenance: Private collection, London
Estimate:  £400 - 600 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 281
A LARGE BRASS SHRINE DEPICTING VIRABHADRA, WESTERN DECCAN, 16TH/17TH CENTURY
cast in three sections, the four-armed form of Siva standing on a flared base, holding sword and shield in his primary hands, wearing sandals, dhoti with dagger tucked in the belt and tall headdress with sivalingam in front, originally flanked by figures of Daksha and Sati (now missing), sheltering under a five-headed cobra resting on the leafy prabha with kirtimukha at the top
44cm high (entire shrine)

See lot 277 for a note about the story of Virabhadra.
Estimate:  £2000 - 3000 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 282
A JAIN BRONZE SHRINE DEPICTING ADINATHA, THE FIRST TIRTHANKARA, GUJARAT, WESTERN INDIA, DATED SAMVAT 1519/1463 AD
inlaid with silver and copper, the central figure seated in padmasana on a lion throne, flanked by a pair of standing jinas and chauri bearers, a further pair of seated jinas above, sheltered by a parasol supported by a pair of elephants, the arched prabha surmounted by a water-pot, dedicatory devanagari inscription and date at the back
18.5cm high

For a similar shrine depicting Chandraprabha sold in these rooms, see lot 54, 25 May 2017.
Estimate:  £1500 - 2000 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 283
A VIRABHADRA PLAQUE, WESTERN DECCAN, 19TH CENTURY
copper repousse relief, of rectangular form, depicting the four-armed form of Siva flanked by Daksha and Sati,
19 x 12cm

See lot 277 for a note about the story of Virabhadra.
Estimate:  £120 - 150 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 284
TWO BRONZE FIGURES OF KRISHNA, BENGAL, 19TH CENTURY OR EARLIER
the larger in the form of Venugopala, standing with ankles crossed, playing the flute, the other as Balakrishna, the infant deity crawling on the ground
19cm (excluding base) and smaller
(2)

Provenance: Private Collection, London

Estimate:  £100 - 150 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 285
A BRASS SHRINE, SOUTH INDIA, 19TH CENTURY
in two sections, probably made for a Vishnu trio, the platform with three spaces for deities (now missing), the prabha in the form of a makaratorana framing a tree, with five-headed cobra and kirtimukha above
23cm

Provenance: Private Collection, London

Estimate:  £80 - 120 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 286
A LARGE BRONZE FIGURE OF RAMA, SOUTH INDIA, 16TH/17TH CENTURY
standing in tribhanga on a circular lotus base resting on a tapered square plinth with carrying loops, his left hand raised, his right at his side, originally carrying his bow (now missing), his quiver hanging from his right shoulder, inscription in telugu at the bottom
39cm high

There is a smaller and slightly earlier depiction of the same subject in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (EA2013.98.a)
Estimate:  £2500 - 3500 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 287
A BRONZE FIGURE OF KRISHNA VENUGOPALA, BENGAL, EASTERN INDIA, CIRCA 18TH CENTURY
the youthful deity standing with ankles crossed, playing the flute (now missing), wearing large beaded earrings and tall tiered headdress, later wood stand
27cm high

For a closely related Krishna figure in the Victoria and Albert Museum, see IS 81 1960

Estimate:  £1800 - 2200 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 288
A BRONZE FIGURE OF NANDI BULL, WESTERN DECCAN, CIRCA 17TH CENTURY
the vehicle of Siva standing on a separately cast raised plinth, wearing necklaces blanket and trappings, a lingam pendant hanging from his neck
25cm high
Estimate:  £1000 - 1500 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 289
A BRONZE FIGURE OF NANDI, WESTERN DECCAN, INDIA, CIRCA 18TH CENTURY
crouching on raised rectangular cushion base, the bull vehicle of Siva wearing a lingam hanging from his neck, with pointed horns and small hump, a loop attachment at the back for cobra canopy (now missing)
10cm high
Estimate:  £120 - 180 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 290
A SMALL BRONZE FIGURE OF A LION, PROBABLY DECCAN, SOUTHERN INDIA, 16TH/17TH CENTURY
originally from a flintstriker
5 x 5 x 1.5cm

Provenance: Private Collection, London

Estimate:  £80 - 120 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 291
A BRASS FIGURE OF DIPALAKSHMI, SOUTH INDIA, 19TH CENTURY
the goddess standing in tribhanga on a raised lotus base, her hands outstretched, wearing kuchhaband, disc earrings and long ponytail, with unrelated brass bowl
27.5cm high
Estimate:  £250 - 350 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 292
A SCHIST STELE DEPICTING SIVA VINADHARA, WESTERN DECCAN, 10TH/11TH CENTURY
the four-armed deity playing the vina, his upper hands holding trisula and damaru, a diminutive figure of his vehicle the bull Nandi in relief below
39cm high

Provenance: Private collection, Germany, acquired 1960-66 in India by the vendor while working in development assistance.

Estimate:  £400 - 600 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 293
A MOTTLED PINK SANDSTONE COPING STONE FRAGMENT, MATHURA REGION, NORTHERN INDIA, 1ST CENTURY A.D.
of long vaulted form, a narrow carved frieze on one side depicting a lion flanked by a pair of swags, a border of alternating bell and bud motifs above
17cm high; 77cm long

Property from a deceased estate, sold by order of the executors; acquired Sotheby's London, 13 June 1988, lot 279.

For two similar fragments from the Nasli and Alice Heeramaneck collection in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, see M.81.90.21a-b. Other examples can be found in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (inv.1983.24; see James Harle and Andrew Topsfield, Indian Art in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford 1987, no.10, p.9), and the Dayton Art Institute (69.8; see S. Czuma, Kushan Sculpture: Images from Early India, Cleveland 1985, no.6).
Estimate:  £700 - 900 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 294
A KUSHAN RED SANDSTONE SIVA LINGAM, PROBABLY KAUSAMBI, NORTHERN INDIA, 2ND/3RD CENTURY
of rounded columnar form, flattened at the back, carved with a face of Siva with third eye on his forehead, smiling expression, wearing earrings and hair gathered in a topknot, mounted
23.5cm high

Provenance: Private collection, London. Acquired in New York in the mid-1970s
Estimate:  £2000 - 3000 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 295
A MONUMENTAL KUSHAN HEAD OF A JINA, MATHURA REGION, NORTHERN INDIA, CIRCA 2ND CENTURY A.D.
pink sandstone, with plump lips, elongated earlobes and prominent eyes, mounted
29cm high

Provenance: Private Collection, London
Acquired from the Swedish dealer and collector Max Willborg (1933-2001) in 1975.

For a closely related head of Buddha in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (M 69.13.9), see Pratapaditya Pal, Indian Sculpture, Vol I, Berkeley 1986, p.184, no.S60
Estimate:  £3000 - 5000 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 296
A LARGE DARK GREY STONE HEAD OF A MALE DEITY, PROBABLY VISHNU, GURJARA-PRATIHARA, WESTERN INDIA, CIRCA 11TH CENTURY
the tall faceted headdress fringed with a crown of repeated vyala heads, with almond-shaped eyes and wearing disc earrings
33cm high

Provenance: Private collection, Southern England. In the possession of the vendor's mother before 1980.

A common feature of the Pratihara period is the combination of faceted headdress with richly carved ornamentation. Typical is a fine Surya bust in the Archaeological Museum, Thanesar, with kirtimukha vomiting jewelled swags. For a similar black stone head on a Vishnu stele dated 1147 from Rajasthan in the National Museum, New Delhi, see George Michell (ed.), In the Image of Man, p.197, pl.345. See also the bust of a yogini in the Victoria and Albert Museum, IS.9-1969.
Estimate:  £2500 - 3500 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 297
A KUSHAN MOTTLED PINK SANDSTONE FRAGMENTARY RAILING COLUMN, MATHURA REGION, NORTHERN INDIA, 2ND/3RD CENTURY
the faceted front with two lotus medallions, a further half medallion at the top with a mythical lion, carved in relief, the back with plain facets, the sides with cigar-shaped sockets for railing slats, mounted
64cm high

Property from a deceased estate, sold by order of the executors; acquired Sotheby's London, 13 June 1988, lot 279.

For a related fragment in the Dayton Art Institute, Ohio, carved on the front with a salabhanjika figure, see S.Czuma, Kushan Sculpture: Images from Early India, Cleveland 1985, no.32, p.96.
Estimate:  £700 - 900 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 298
A CLAY VOTIVE PLAQUE, PAGAN, BURMA, CIRCA 12TH CENTURY
of arched form, the impressed relief depicting Buddha within a shrine, flanked by figures of Moggolana and Sariputta, a group of small stupas above
15 x 15.5 x 4.5cm
Estimate:  £300 - 400 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 299
A DVARAVATI TERRACOTTA BUST OF BUDDHA, THAILAND, 7TH/8TH CENTURY
wearing robes gathered at his waist, with elongated earlobes and tightly curled hair, mounted
28.5cm high

Provenance: From the collection of the late Dr. J. S. Gordon, London. Acquired from Manuel Castilho, London 1999. A folder of documentation including the original invoice, dated 15 March 1999, is sold with this lot.

Estimate:  £800 - 1200 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Lot 300
A DVARAVATI TERRACOTTA HEAD OF BUDDHA, THAILAND, 7TH/8TH CENTURY
with tightly curled hair the ears with elongated lobes, the face with full lips, mounted on stand
14.5cm high

Provenance: Private Collection, London
Estimate:  £500 - 800 Click here for details of BP and other fees payable on this lot.
  
Buyer's Premium at our standard rate(s) plus VAT is payable on all purchases.
Additional fees could also be applicable to certain lots. For further information see the full lot details page by clicking the thumbnail image of the relevant lot.